All About Chess and Computers: Chess and Computers and More by David Levy, Monroe Newborn (auth.)

By David Levy, Monroe Newborn (auth.)

For your time now, i've got felt that the time is correct to jot down a booklet approximately laptop Chess. Ever because the first makes an attempt at chess professional­ gramming have been made, a few twenty 5 years in the past, curiosity within the topic ha"s grown from 12 months to 12 months. throughout the past due Nineteen Fifties the topic was once first dropped at the eye of the general public through an editorial in Scient(fic American, and not more than a decade later a chess application was once competing in a event with people. extra lately, there were tournaments during which the single members have been laptop courses. and while the 1st international laptop Championship was once held in Stockholm in 1974 the development was once a great good fortune. Laymen usually doubt the worth of making an investment in a topic so esoteric as desktop chess, yet there's certainly huge profit to be received from a research of the automisation of chess and different highbrow video games. If it proves attainable to play such video games good through machine, then the suggestions hired to examine and examine destiny positions in those video games can also be helpful in different difficulties in long-range making plans. i've got attempted to make this publication either fascinating and instructive. those that comprehend something in any respect approximately chess yet who've no wisdom of desktops, might be in a position to stick with my description of the way desktops play chess. people with a data of either parts will nonetheless locate a lot to curiosity them.

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Additional resources for All About Chess and Computers: Chess and Computers and More Chess and Computers

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19a DIAGRAM 7 Po DIAGRAM 9 ..... v, [ '" (j ~ ~ ;: ~ ~ f ~ ~ 36 How Computers Play Chess by evaluating all the nodes at the lower extremities of the tree (called the terminal nodes) the program can decide which move to make. In this example the decision is simple. e. Black has been mated. This is not true in any of the other three cases and so R-R8 is the move that would be chosen. Now let us grow a slightly larger tree in order to see how a computer program looks ahead. Depth 1 Fig. 20 A tree of depth two "half-moves ".

If neither the king nor the rook has yet moved). add another point if castling is immediately possible or if the castling move has just been made. 3 points for each pawn defended by one or more non-pawns. 5 points for a check. The material values assigned to each of the pieces was: Pawn=l, knight=3. s, rook=s, queen=lO. The game played between Turing's hand simulation and a weak human opponent is given below. White: 'Program' Black: Human Manchester 1951 1 2 3 4 P-K4 N-QB3 P-Q4 N-B3 P-K4 N-KB3 B-Ns P-Q3 5 B-Q2 N-B3 6 P-Qs N-Qs 7 P-KR4 Strangely enough, even though such moves would be almost unthinkable in a game between reasonable human players, they are not uncommon in computer The Early History of Computer Chess games.

How to measure such features is one of the most serious problems in computer chess today. How Computers Play Chess 33 Trees and Tree-Searching Given the ability to generate all the legal moves from any chess position and the facility to perform some sort of evaluation on the resulting position, a computer program can play chess in better than random fashion. In fact, if it were possible to achieve, using an evaluation function, assessments that were 100% accurate, then it would be possible to write a computer program to play perfect chess without the need for any look-ahead.

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