Alcohol and the Community: A Systems Approach to Prevention by Harold D. Holder

By Harold D. Holder

An individual's determination to take advantage of alcohol and the frequency, volume, and occasions of use are the results of a mixture of organic and social elements. consuming isn't just a private selection, but in addition an issue of customized and social habit, and is motivated through entry and financial elements together with degrees of disposable source of revenue and value of alcoholic drinks. until eventually prevention efforts stop to concentration narrowly at the person and start to undertake broader group views on alcohol difficulties and methods to lessen them, those efforts will fail. the writer demanding situations the present implicit versions utilized in alcohol challenge prevention and demonstrates an ecological point of view of the neighborhood as a fancy adaptive process composed of interacting subsystems. this significant quantity represents a brand new and brilliant method of the prevention of alcohol dependence and alcohol-related difficulties.

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The role of alcohol in routine activities also can be related to the risk of alcohol-involved problems. Parker (1995) and Parker & Rebhun (1995) showed that as drinking becomes a part of routine activities away from home, the risk of victimization can increase. Casswell, Fang Zhang & Wyllie (1993) found that in New Zealand the number of self-reported alcohol-involved problems varies according to the choice of drinking location (hotel, pub, or club) and the amount of alcohol typically consumed. Stockwell, Lange & Rydon (1993) found that in Australiafightsand arguments among male heavy drinkers are more likely to occur at bars and pubs than elsewhere.

In a more recent report, based upon cross-national longitudinal research, Fillmore et al. (1991) argued for historical, cultural, and cohort effects as explanations for cross-cultural variations in drinking. For example, Fillmore and her colleagues postulated that the more permissive the culture in which young men reach their peak alcohol consumption, the more stable their consumption will be over time. 38 Consumption Subsystem Abstention Non-drinkers make up an important part of any culture. About one-third of the US population abstain from alcohol, a proportion that has remained relatively stable during the past 60 years.

671 grams (g) (by weight). Alternative 1 This classification was used in the US national alcohol consumption surveys from 1964 to 1976. The purpose of consumption surveys is to describe the general population's drinking patterns. Because the majority of the US population are light drinkers, this classification gives a good picture of the distribution of consumption by distinguishing between categories of lighter drinkers, while lumping together moderate and heavy drinkers. Alternative 2 This classification distinguishes between degrees of heavy drinking by providing separate categories for heavy (class 3) and very heavy (class 4) drinkers.

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