After phrenology : neural reuse and the interactive brain by Michael L. Anderson

By Michael L. Anderson

The machine analogy of the brain has been as broadly followed in modern cognitive neuroscience as used to be the analogy of the mind as a set of organs in phrenology. simply because the phrenologist may insist that every organ needs to have its specific functionality, so modern cognitive neuroscience is devoted to the inspiration that every mind area should have its basic computation. In After Phrenology, Michael Anderson argues that to accomplish an absolutely post-phrenological technological know-how of the mind, we have to re-examine this dedication and devise an alternative, neuroscientifically grounded taxonomy of psychological functionality.

Anderson contends that the cognitive roles performed via each one quarter of the mind are hugely numerous, reflecting diversified neural partnerships verified lower than various situations. He proposes quantifying the practical houses of neural assemblies when it comes to their dispositional traits relatively than their computational or information-processing operations. Exploring larger-scale concerns, and drawing on proof from embodied cognition, Anderson develops an image of pondering rooted within the exploitation and extension of our early-evolving means for iterated interplay with the realm. He argues that the multidimensional method of the mind he describes bargains a more robust healthy for those findings, and a extra promising highway towards a unified technology of minded organisms.

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For example, at one site, stimulation caused the mouth to open about 2 cm and the tongue to move to a particular location in the mouth. Regardless of the starting posture of the tongue or jaw, stimulation evoked a movement toward this final configuration. This type of posture may be useful to a monkey for eating, but could also be an evolutionary precursor to the phoneme. (Graziano et al. 2002b, p. 355) There are certainly functional characteristics that a unit of acoustic communication must have in order to adequately perform its communicative purpose, and not just any neural substrate would have had the required characteristics.

17). Put differently, the regions were active in an average of 95 tasks spread across nine cognitive domains. 2 using a cool-to-hot scale (gray indicates no information). The analysis was also performed in a brain divided into 1,054 neural regions. 13). Those 595 regions were activated by an average of more than 10 experiments across five cognitive domains. 12). These results were recently confirmed with different methods and metrics, for a range of brain region sizes, thoroughly measuring diversity in the brain voxel by voxel (Anderson et al.

The motor control system is here being used for a specific cognitive purpose not because it is performing semantic grounding or providing metaphorically guided domain structuring but because it offers an appropriate physical (and spatiotemporal) resource for the task. 5 Reuse of Perceptual Structures to Support Other Types of HigherOrder Cognition There are examples of the reuse of structures typically associated with perception that also make the same point. Although there are certainly studies that appear to unproblematically support concept empiricism—for example, Simmons et al.

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