By Håkan Olausson, Johan Wessberg, India Morrison, Francis McGlone
CT afferents are receptors in mammalian furry dermis that fireside motion potentials whilst the outside is touched evenly which makes them relatively vital in affective touch. normally neuroscientific learn has interested by extra discriminative and haptic houses of contact that are mediated by way of large myelinated afferents and the coding homes and useful association of unmyelinated CT afferents were studied a lot less. The proposed quantity will draw jointly present wisdom during this nascent box. Separate sections will deal with (1) how we will degree affective contact, (2) CT constitution and body structure, (3) CT processing, (4) the contribution of CTs to sexual habit, (5) medical relevance, (6) advertisement relevance, and (7) destiny study considerations.
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Additional info for Affective Touch and the Neurophysiology of CT Afferents
Trends Neurosci 6:27–32 Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessel TM, Siegelbaum SA, Hudspeth AJ (eds) (2013) Principles of neural science, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York Kenins P (1982) Responses of single nerve fibres to capsaicin applied to the skin. Neurosci Lett 29(1):83–88 Kumazawa T, Perl ER (1977) Primate cutaneous sensory units with unmyelinated (C) afferent fibers. J Neurophysiol 40:1325–1338 (They point out that CT are scarce in distal arm regions) Li L, Rutlin M, Abraira VE, Cassidy C, Kus L, Gong S, Jankowski MP, Luo W, Heintz N, Koerber HR, Woodbury CJ, Ginty DD (2011) The functional organization of cutaneous low-threshold mechanosensory neurons.
However, in rodents such as rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits, approximately 8–15 % are classiﬁed as C-LTMRs (Lynn and Carpenter 1982; Shea and Perl 1985; Fang et al. 2005; but see Takahashi et al. 2003 for a higher estimate) and approximately 10 % in monkey (Kumazawa and Perl 1977). The proportion in humans is unclear. It must be noted that these estimates may not represent the actual numbers for reasons including sampling bias. In terms of C-LTMR density in skin, monkeys (Kumazawa and Perl 1977), cats (Bessou and Perl 1969), and mice (Liu et al.
2013). The hedonic effect of a caressing movement is dependent not only on the mechanical and kinetic characteristics of the stimulus but also on the temperature of the touching object. Obviously, in most situations one would not feel a cold or a hot object as very pleasant. The significance of the temperature was explored to assess whether CT response and estimates of pleasantness would be consistent with the affective touch hypothesis. When responses to slowly moving objects of three different temperatures were tested, a very pertinent response pattern emerged that seems not only consistent with the hedonic touch hypothesis but also, in fact, directly supporting it (Ackerley et al.