A Closer Look at the Animal Kingdom (Introduction to by Sherman Hollar

By Sherman Hollar

Exclusive by way of their hugely built psychological colleges and their ability for cause, people are usually acknowledged to reign sovereign within the animal nation. With their complicated interactions, elaborate social buildings, and wide diversity of displayed feelings, notwithstanding, all creatures could be acknowledged to give a contribution uniquely to the planet and to the subsistence of all different beings. This colourful quantity surveys a number of the participants of the animal state and the behavior, behaviors, and actual features that unite and distinguish all animals.

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This third layer gives solidity to the body and permits the animal to grow to a large size. Muscles and other complex organs develop from this layer. 52 AnImAls wIthout BAckBones Roundworms Roundworms, unlike flatworms, have a digestive tube with two openings—a mouth and an anus through which wastes are expelled. Roundworms, which make up the phylum Nematoda, are also called nematodes. Roundworms are among the most abundant of all animals and are found in a wide variety of environments. Parasitic roundworms are responsible for a number of diseases in humans, including trichinosis and hookworm disease.

Bats and many kinds of birds catch insects in flight. Some birds comb leaves with their bills for small insects, and woodpeckers 29 A closer look At the AnImAl kIngdom hammer into the bark of trees for grubs. Hawks swoop down to hunt rodents and other birds. The kangaroo rat feeds on dry thistle and cactus leaves, seeds, and small juicy tubers that grow below the surface. It collects seeds in its cheek pouches and stores them in underground chambers. Gophers and chipmunks also collect food in their cheek pouches and store it in underground pantries for future use.

They also have two or three simple eyes that probably detect motion. The eyesight of some fish is especially keen. Ears are perhaps as important as eyes to some species. The fennec is a foxlike animal that lives in the Sahara and hunts by night. Its large ears help it detect its prey in the darkness of a hot, dry climate, where food may be very scarce. The cat is also a night prowler, and it too has large, erect ears. The hearing organs of the field cricket and katydid are located on their forelegs; the organ is a thin membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves.

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